Wednesday, January 12, 2005

What the Sudan peace deal entails

Putting former enemies together in the same government has been tried elsewhere in Africa, with mixed results. Rwanda erupted into genocide in 1994 after a peace deal there between Hutu and Tutsi failed to win full Hutu support. Congo signed a peace agreement in 1999 but true peace there remains elusive. Burundi's power-sharing government has yet to win over all the rebel factions wreaking havoc there.

Some pointers:
* The objective of the agreement is to keep Sudan intact
* The first challenge will be to complete a new constitution within six months (unless they consult Kenyans)
* Islamic law, or Sharia, will apply to the north but not the south
* The South will have a six-year interim period of self-rule, after which it will vote in a referendum on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede
* The South will be get some autonomy, but basically they must create a functioning government from scratch
* Garang to become Sudan's first vice president, replacing Taha
* National Congress will take 52% of parliament, with the SPLM controlling 28% of seats. Other northern parties will have 14% while other southern parties 6% of the national assembly
* About 10,000 U.N. peacekeepers and monitors are expected to come to the region
* Armies must be merged. More than 100,000 government and rebel forces will redeployed
* Both English and Arabic will become the official languages
* New paper money will be issued with a design reflecting the country's diversity
* A dual banking system is to be set up
* Revenue from Sudan's underground oil deposits in the south will be divided up evenly between north and south. Communities in areas of oil production will have a say in oil contracts

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